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Glossary

  • ACID MODIFIED ASPHALT/BITUMEN 
Bitumen modified by the addition of inorganic acids, typically phosphoric, or polyphosphoric acid. 

  • AِِDDITIVE 
Any substance that is added in small proportions to bitumen to impart some particular property e.g. improved adhesion, emulsification etc.

  • ADHESION AGENT 
An additive that forms a water-resistant chemical bridge between binder and aggregate surface, and hence improves adhesion.

  • AIR BLOWING 
The process by which compressed air is blown into a BITUMEN feedstock typically at 230-260°C (446-500°F), sometimes in the presence of catalysts (typically ferric chloride, phosphoric acid, or phosphorus pentoxide).This process results in complex reactions which raise the softening point and viscosity of the bitumen. See OXIDISED BITUMENS. 

  • AIR-BLOWN ASPHALTS 
See OXIDISED BITUMENS 

  • AIR-BLOWN BITUMENS 
BITUMEN products produced by AIR BLOWING. See OXIDISED BITUMENS. 

  • AIR-REFINED BITUMENS 
Penetration bitumens produced by partial blowing. Archaic term, no longer in use. 

  • AIR-RECTIFIED BITUMEN (synonym SEMI-BLOWN BITUMEN) 
A bitumen that has been subjected to mild oxidation with the goal of producing a bitumen meeting paving grade bitumen specifications. Air rectified bitumens are used in paving applications as well as roofing applications, such as shingle saturants and Type 1 Built Up Roofing Asphalt (BURA), and also for some industrial applications 

  • ANTI-FOAM AGENT 
A substance, e.g. silicone oil, which when added to a bitumen will reduce the surface tension and hence the frothing tendency of hot bitumen in the presence of water.

  • ASPHALT 
A mixture of BITUMEN and mineral materials used as a paving material that is typically produced at temperatures in the range of 140-160°C (280-320°F). In North America the term ASPHALT is synonymous with BITUMEN as used in Europe and also the term HOT MIX ASPHALT. 

  • ASPHALT BINDER 
Term used in the U.S. and some other countries for BITUMEN. 

  • ASPHALT CEMENT 
Term used in the U.S. and some other countries for BITUMEN. 

  • ASPHALT COLD MIXES 

ASPHALT mixtures made using CUTBACK BITUMENS or BITUMEN EMULSIONS, which can be placed at ambient temperatures. 

  • ASPHALTENES 
Highly polar aromatic materials. Asphaltenes have high viscosity or stiffness at ambient temperatures and are responsible for the overall stiffness of BITUMENS. They can be precipitated with n-heptane and are sometimes referred to as n-heptane insolubles. 

  • ASPHALT MASTIC 
Asphalt mastic (AM) is a voidless asphalt mixture with bitumen as a binder containing filler and/or limestone fine aggregates and/or natural asphalt and/or sand (see EN 12970). 

  • ASPHALT MIXES (MIXTURES) 
Mixtures of graded mineral aggregates (sized stone fractions, sands and fillers) with a controlled amount of PENETRATION GRADED BITUMEN. 

  • ATMOSPHERIC DISTILLATION 
Distillation at atmospheric pressure 

  • ATMOSPHERIC RESIDUE 
Residue of ATMOSPHERIC DISTILLATION 

  • AUTO-IGNITION TEMPERATURE
The temperature above which a substance, when exposed to air, might ignite in the absence of a source of ignition as a result of contact with a hot surface or by self-heating alone.
Auto-ignition temperature is not an intrinsic property of the substance. It depends upon the surrounding physical circumstances including the size and shape of the substance and the degree of ventilation around it. Therefore, the auto-ignition temperature for any substance can only be indicated approximately.

  • BASE OILS 
Petroleum-derived products consisting of complex mixtures of straight and branch-chained paraffinic, naphthenic (cycloparaffin) and aromatic hydrocarbons, with carbon numbers of 15 or more and boiling-points in the range of 300-600°C (570-1110°F). Depending on climatic conditions BASE OILS can be used to reduce the low stiffness of BITUMENS to resist low temperature cracking of pavements. 

  • BENDING BEAM RHEOMETER 
A machine used to determine the low temperature stiffness properties of BITUMENS that have been laboratory aged to simulate extended aging of the BITUMEN in ASPHALT pavements. Results are part of the PERFORMANCE GRADED BITUMEN specification.

  • BINDER 
According to EN12597; Material serving to adhere to aggregate and ensure cohesion of the mixture. A more general term used to identify BITUMEN plus potential modifiers used to produce ASPHALT mixes. The term BINDER reflects that some ASPHALT mixes may utilize MODIFIED BITUMENS. 

  • BITUMEN BLOCKS 
Small size blocks (typically 20kg) of BONDING BITUMEN for being melted in kettles.

  • BITUMEN, PETROLEUM DERIVED 
A dark brown to black cement-like residuum obtained from the distillation of suitable CRUDE oils. The distillation processes may involve one or more of the following: atmospheric distillation, vacuum distillation, steam distillation. 
Further processing of distillation residuum may be needed to yield a material whose physical properties are suitable for commercial applications. These additional processes can involve air oxidation, solvent stripping or blending of residua of different stiffness characteristics. 

  • BITUMEN EMULSION 
A mixture of two normally immiscible components (BITUMEN and water) and an emulsifying agent (usually a surfactant). Bitumen emulsions are utilized in paving, roofing and waterproofing operations. These materials are called EMULSIFIED ASPHALTS in North America. 

  • BITUMEN FUME 
The gases and vapors emitted from heated BITUMEN, and the aerosols and mists resulting from the condensation of vapors after volatilisation from heated BITUMEN. 

  • BITUMEN GRADING TERMINOLOGY 
There are currently three main grading systems employed world-wide for identifying and specifying bitumens used in road construction. These systems are PENETRATION, VISCOSITY and PERFORMANCE GRADED. Although each system has test methods that are unique to that system, similar bitumens are used across all grading systems. The particular system used within a given country or region is generally a result of historical practices or governmental stipulations. 

  • BITUMEN ENAMEL (BITUMEN PAINT) 
An external coating for protecting steel pipes. The term can also be used for bitumen paints (formulated CUTBACK BITUMENS or BITUMEN EMULSIONS). 

  • BITUMEN MACADAM 
A type of ASPHALT mix with a high stone content and containing 3-5% by weight of bitumen. 

  • BITUMEN PAINT 
A CUTBACK BITUMEN made to treat bare metal or concrete or wood surfaces giving a bond between the surface and an ENAMEL or a bituminous membrane or bonding bitumen. 

  • BITUMEN PAINT 
A specialized CUTBACK BITUMEN product that contains relatively small amounts of other materials that are not native to BITUMEN or to the diluents typically used in cutback products, such as lampblack, aluminum flakes, and mineral pigments. They are used as a protective coating in waterproofing operations and other similar applications. 

  • BITUMEN PRIMER 
A CUTBACK BITUMEN made to treat bare metal surfaces giving a bond between the metal and an ENAMEL. 

  • BITUMEN ROOFING FELT 
A sheet material, impregnated with BITUMEN, generally supplied in rolls and used in roof construction. 

  • BITUMINOUS 
Of or related to BITUMEN. In this document the terms BITUMEN and BITUMINOUS refer exclusively to petroleum derived BITUMEN as defined above. 

  • BLENDED BITUMENS 
Blends of two or more BITUMENS with different physical characteristics or blends of Bitumen(s) and high boiling point petroleum fractions (e.g. Heavy Vacuum Gas Oil) in order to achieve desired physical properties. 

  • BLOWING STILL 
(Also known as OXIDISER or Bitumen Blowing Unit.) Equipment used to air blow BITUMEN. 

  • BOIL-OVER (FROTH-OVER)
The rapid increase in volume caused by the presence of water in hot bitumen and the subsequent overflow from a tank.

  • BONDING BITUMEN 
OXIDISED BITUMEN or POLYMER MODIFIED BITUMEN used for HOT APPLIED ROOFING.
 
  • BRIQUETTING 
The process by which fine materials (e.g., coal dusts, metal tailings) are mixed with a bitumen (or other) binder to form conveniently handled blocks or pellets. Archaic term, no longer in use. 

  • BUILT UP ROOFING (BUR) 
NORTH AMERICA: 
A continuous roofing membrane consisting of plies of saturated organic (e.g., cellulose) felts or coated inorganic (e.g., glass fiber) felts, assembled in place with alternate layers of BITUMEN or COAL TAR PITCH, and surfaced with mineral aggregate, a granule surfaced sheet, or a roof coating. 
EUROPE: 
A continuous roofing membrane consisting of plies of coated inorganic (e.g., glass fiber) felts, assembled in place with alternate layers of BITUMEN, and surfaced with mineral aggregate, a granule surfaced sheet, or a roof coating. 

  • BUILT UP ROOFING ASPHALT (BURA) 
OXIDISED BITUMEN used in the construction of low slope built up roofing (BUR) systems; specification defined by ASTM D312.This material is called Built-Up Roofing ASPHALT (BURA) in North America. 

  • CAS REGISTRY 
A large database of chemical substance information in the world containing more than 29 million organic and inorganic substances and 57 million sequences. http://www.cas.org/ 

  • CAS REGISTRY NUMBER 
A CAS Registry Number is assigned to a substance when it enters the CAS REGISTRY database.
 
  • CATALYTIC AIR-BLOWN BITUMENS 
OXIDISED BITUMENS produced using catalysts in AIR BLOWING.

  • COAL TAR 
A dark brown to black, highly aromatic material manufactured during the high-temperature carbonization of bituminous coals which differs from bitumen substantially in composition and physical characteristics. It has previously been used in the roofing and paving industries as an alternative to BITUMEN. 

  • COAL TAR PITCH 
A black or dark brown cementitious solid that is obtained as a residue in the partial evaporation or fractional distillation of COAL TAR. Coal Tar Pitch has been used in the past in roofing as an alternative to BITUMEN.

  • COATING BITUMEN 
An AIR BLOWN or OXIDISED or polymer modified bitumen used to manufacture roofing membranes or shingles.

  • COLD ADHESIVE 
Bituminous CUTBACK used as a glue for application at ambient temperature of polymer modified bitumen membranes.

  • COLD-APPLIED ROOFING BITUMEN 
Bitumen roofing products that are applied at ambient temperatures at the work place without any heating (e.g. peel and stick bitumen membrane or membranes applied with the use of a cold adhesive). 

  • COLLOID MILLS 
High-speed shearing devices in which hot bitumen can be dispersed using a surfactant in an aqueous solution to produce a BITUMEN EMULSION. 

  • COLOURED MINERAL GRANULES 
Natural or factory colored minerals used as light surface protection for bitumen membranes or bitumen shingles. 

  • CRUDE OIL/PETROLEUM 
A naturally-occurring mixture, consisting predominantly of hydrocarbons but also containing sulphur, nitrogen or oxygen derivatives of hydrocarbons, which can be removed from the earth in a liquid state. 

  • CUTBACK BITUMENS (PETROLEUM) 
Bitumen whose viscosity has been reduced by the addition of a CUTBACK SOLVENT derived from petroleum. 

  • CUTBACK SOLVENT (PETROLEUM) 
Relatively volatile petroleum solvent used in the manufacture of CUTBACK BITUMEN. Typically white spirit (Stoddard Solvent) and kerosene are the petroleum derived solvents employed. 

  • CYCLICS (NAPHTHENE AROMATICS) 
Compounds with aromatic and naphthenic nuclei with side chain constituents. They are viscous liquids and represent the major proportion of the dispersion medium for the ASPHALTENES and adsorbed resins in bitumen. They constitute 30-60% by mass of the total bitumen.
 
  • DRUM-MIXER 
An ASPHALT mixing device in which mixtures of MINERAL AGGREGATE and bitumen are heated and combined continuously in a rotating drum. 

  • DYNAMIC SHEAR RHEOMETER 
A testing device used to determine the stiffness of bitumens over a range of temperatures and test frequencies. 
Typically a standard amount of bitumen (25 mm in diameter by 1 mm in thickness) tested between two flat plates (25 mm in diameter). An oscillatory stress or strain of known value is applied to the bitumen sample and the resultant strain or stress is measured. From these data the stiffness of the bitumen is calculated. The stiffness results are part of the specification within the PERFORMANCE GRADED system of specifications.
 
  • DURABILITY TESTING 
See WEATHERING TEST. 

  • EINECS 
European Inventory of Existing Commercial chemical Substances; analogous to the CAS system by which chemical substances were registered under the EU Existing Substances Regulation. 

  • ELASTOMER
A polymeric substance (natural or synthetic) which when stretched to a length that is less than its point of rupture and released will recovery substantially to its originally length. Examples are vulcanized natural rubber, styrene butadiene latex rubber, styrene butadiene styrene block copolymer. 

  • EMULSIFIED ASPHALTS 
See BITUMEN EMULSIONS. 

  • EMULSIFIER 
A chemical additive that is used to stabilize a suspension of bitumen in water in emulsion manufacture. The emulsifier determines the charge of the emulsion and controls the stability.

  • EQUIVISCOUS TEMPERATURE (EVT) 
The temperature at which BITUMEN has a viscosity that is optimum for application in BUILT UP ROOFING (BUR) systems. For mop application the optimum apparent viscosity is 125 centipoise (cP), for mechanical application it is 75 cP. 

  • FILLER (Paving) 
Fine mineral matter employed to give body to a bituminous binder or to fill the voids of a sand.

  • FILLER (Roofing) 
Fine mineral matter, typically limestone, or slate dust mixed with BITUMEN prior to being applied as a coating in the manufacture of ROOFING SHINGLES and other roofing products. 

  • FLASH POINT 
The temperature at which a combustible vapor forms above the surface of BITUMEN in a specific test method. 
Methods used for ROOFING BITUMEN products are EN ISO 2592 or ASTM D92 for Open Cup Flash point and EN ISO 2719 or ASTM D93 for Closed Cup Flash point. 

  • FLEXIBLE PAVEMENTS 
Road surfacings made from layers of ASPHALT mixes.

  • FLUXED BITUMEN (PETROLEUM) 
A bitumen whose viscosity has been reduced by the addition of a flux oil derived from petroleum. Note: Typically gas oils of various distillation ranges are employed as the flux oil. FLUXED BITUMEN differs from CUTBACK BITUMENS which also are reduced viscosity BITUMENS in that the flux oils have negligible volatility at ambient temperatures compared to the petroleum solvents used to produce CUTBACK BITUMENS.

  • FLUX 
This term has different meanings in different regions. e.g; 
North America: also referred to as ROOFING FLUX. A term of art referring to a raw material from which OXIDISED BITUMEN is made. Typically soft bitumens [less than 50 Pa.s @ 60°C (140°F)] are used, although bitumens of higher viscosity can be included within the definition of FLUX. 
Europe: FLUX refers to FLUX or FLUX OIL; Relatively involatile fluid (oil) used in the manufacture of fluxed bitumen. 

  • FLUX OILS (PETROLEUM) 
This term has different meanings in different regions. e.g.: 
North America: High flash point hydrocarbon oils (generally paraffinic) added to a ROOFING FLUX prior to oxidizing. 
The purpose of a FLUX OIL is to enable manufacture of OXIDISED BITUMEN with higher penetration values at a given softening point than would be possible without incorporation of the FLUX OIL. 
Europe: FLUX refers to FLUX or FLUX OIL; Relatively involatile fluid (oil) used in the manufacture of fluxed bitumen, it also refers to the diluent used in the manufacture of OXIDISED BITUMEN. 

  • FOREMAN 
Supervises a crew or a particular operation in the placement and compaction process of asphalt. 

  • FUME 
Vapour carrying suspended solid particles or liquid droplets.

  • FUME SUPPRESSING BUR BITUMENS 
Proprietary BUR BITUMEN products which contain small amounts of polymer (added during manufacture or at the job site) that forms a layer on the surface of the heated BITUMEN, lowering the rate of fume generation. Also known as Low Fuming BITUMENS.

  • GANTRY
A fixed structure providing access to the top of a transport vehicle for loading or discharging operations.

  • GAS OIL 
A liquid petroleum distillate with a viscosity and boiling-range between those of KEROSENE and lubricating oil. 

  • GILSONITE 
A natural, resinous hydrocarbon found in the Uintah Basin in north eastern Utah, USA.
 
  • GLASS MAT OR FELT 
A nonwoven mat made with short glass fibers adhered together with a resin and suitable for coating and impregnation with BITUMEN for roofing products. 

  • HARD BITUMEN 
A bitumen possessing low penetration value and high softening-point. These are used in the manufacture of high modulus ASPHALT MIXTURES. 

  • HOT-APPLIED ROOFING 
Application of roofing membranes with hot BONDING BITUMEN as a glue by mopping, pouring, or with mechanical spreaders (pour & roll technique).This is also called HOT BONDING ROOFING.

  • HOT BONDING ROOFING 
See HOT APPLIED ROOFING. 

  • HOT MIX ASPHALT 
A mixture of bitumen and mineral materials used as a paving material that is typically produced at temperatures in the range of 140-160°C (280-320°F). In Europe, the term is synonymous with ASPHALT. 

  • HOT WELDING ROOFING 
See TORCHING. 

  • KEROSENE (KEROSINE) 
A petroleum distillate consisting of hydrocarbons with carbon numbers predominantly in the range of C9 through C16 and boiling in the range of 150-290°C (300-550°F).

  • LABORERS 
Sometimes perform tasks and may be on site to perform miscellaneous tasks. 

  • LAKE ASPHALT 
Most common form of NATURAL ASPHALT, occurring in Trinidad. 

  • LOSS ON HEATING 
A common industrial BITUMEN test which measures the weight loss after exposing a small BITUMEN sample to 163°C (325°F) for 5 hours. See ASTM D6. 

  • LOW-SLOPE ROOFING 
Roofing products designed for a roof slope of less than or equal to 14 degrees. 

  • MALTENES 
Relatively low molecular weight oily fraction of bitumen. The maltenes are believed to dissolve, or disperse the ASPHALTENES in the colloidal structure of bitumen. They are the n-heptane soluble fraction of bitumen. 

  • MASTIC ASPHALT 
Mastic asphalt (MA) is a voidless asphalt mixture with bitumen as a binder in which the volume of the filler and binder exceeds the volume of remaining voids (see EN13108-6). 

  • MEMBRANE 
A factory made flexible layer of bitumen with internal or external incorporation of one or more carriers, supplied in roll form ready for use. 

  • MINERAL AGGREGATE
A combination of stone fractions and FILLER. 

  • MODIFIED BITUMENS 
Bituminous binder whose rheological properties have been modified during manufacture by the use of one or more chemical agents. 

  • MOPPER 
A worker who spreads hot bitumen on a roof with a mop. 

  • NATURAL ASPHALT 
Naturally-occurring mixture of bitumens and mineral matter formed by oil seepages in the earth's crust. Natural asphalts include Trinidad Lake, Rock, Gilsonite, Selenice and others. 

  • OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE STANDARDS (OES)
The contaminant concentrations in the working atmosphere annually set, in the UK by the Health and Safety Executive, either as limits which should not normally be exceeded or as limits of good practice. These limits are normally set as Long Term Exposure Standards (8-hour time weighted average values) and/or as Short Term Exposure Limits (10-minute time weighted aver-age maximum exposure limits (MEL).

  • OXIDISED BITUMEN. (OXIDIZED BITUMEN) 
Bitumen whose rheological properties have been substantially modified by reaction with air at elevated temperatures. This material is also sometimes referred to as "blown bitumen" and, in the USA, AIR-BLOWN ASPHALT. 

  • OXIDISED BITUMEN MEMBRANE 
A ROOFING BITUMEN product typically made by coating a glass fiber or polyester mat with a mixture of OXIDISED.
BITUMEN and mineral filler, and then packaging the finished product in rolls. In North America these products may be made with a mineral granule surface and are called "ROLL ROOFING". 

  • OXIDISER 
See BLOWING STILL. 

  • PAH, PAC 
Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons is the collective name for a large group of several hundred chemicals that have a characteristic structure of two or more fused aromatic rings. They are a class of organic compounds and also a sub- group of the larger family of chemicals - Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (PAC). 

  • PAVER OPERATORS (PAVERS) 
Person stationed on top of the paving machine (placement machine) to drive it as it receives asphalt from delivery trucks and distributes it on the road prior to compaction by rolling. 

  • PAVING BITUMEN/ASPHALT 
A bitumen used to coat mineral aggregate, mainly used in the construction and maintenance of paved surfaces and hydraulic works. 

  • PAVING MACHINE 
A machine designed for placement a uniform asphalt mat onto a road surface prior to roller compaction. 

  • PENETRATION GRADED BITUMENS 
Bitumens classified by the depth to which a standard needle will penetrate the bitumen sample under specified test conditions. (see ASTM D5 and/or EN1426 for an explanation of the penetration test). 

  • PENETRATION INDEX 
Indication of the thermal susceptibility of a bituminous binder. The penetration index is calculated from the values of PENETRATION and the SOFTENING POINT. It is based on the following hypothesis of Pfeiffer and Van Doormael: 
At the temperature of the softening point, the penetration of a bitumen is 800 dmm. 
When the logarithm (base 10) of PENETRATION is plotted against temperature, a straight line is obtained, the slope. 

A of which is defined by: 

A PENETRATION INDEX of zero is attributed to a bitumen with a PENETRATION at 25°C (77°F) of 200 dmm and a SOFTENING POINT of 40 °C (104°F). 

  • PENETRATION TEST 
Specification test to measure the hardness of bitumen under specified conditions. In which the indentation of a bitumen in tenths of a millimeter (dmm) at 25°C (77°F) is measured using a standard needle with a loading of 100 g and 5s duration. Details of the test can be found in ASTM D5 and/or EN 1426 as well as other sources. 

  • PERFORMANCE GRADED BITUMENS 
Bitumens classified based on the research results of the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP). PERFORMANCE GRADED (PG) specifications are based on the stiffness of the bitumen at the high and low temperature environment in which the bitumen will be expected to perform within pavement. Currently Performance Graded Bitumens are most widely utilized in the United States and Canada. 

  • PETROLEUM PITCH 
The residue from the distillation of thermal cracked or steam-cracked residuum and/or catalytic cracked clarified oil with a SOFTENING POINT from 40 ºC - 180 ºC (104 ºF - 356 ºF). Composed primarily of a complex combination of three or more membered condensed ring aromatic hydrocarbons. 

  • PLASTOMER 
A polymer type which exhibits stiffness and strength but does not recover substantially when deformed. Examples of this type of polymer used in bitumens are ethylene vinyl acetate, ethylene methacrylate, polyethylene, and atactic polypropylene 

  • PLY 
A layer of felt or sheet in a roof membrane; a four-ply membrane has at least four plies of felt or sheet at any vertical cross section cut through the membrane. 

  • POLYMER MODIFIED BITUMEN/ASPHALT (PMB/A) 
Modified Bitumen/Asphalt in which the modifier used is one or more organic polymers.

  • POLYMER MODIFIED BITUMEN MEMBRANE 
A factory made flexible layer of STRAIGHT RUN and/or OXIDISED bitumen modified with elastomeric or plastomeric polymers with internal or external incorporation of one or more carriers, supplied in roll form ready for use. 

  • POLYPHOSPHORIC ACID (PPA) 
CAS No.: 8017-16-1, Molecular Formula: H6P4O13. POLYPHOSPHORIC ACID includes long-chain polymerized units of PO4 units. A key feature in POLYPHOSPHORIC ACID is the absence of free water.
 
  • PROPANE-PRECIPITATED ASPHALT (PROPANE BITUMEN) 
See SOLVENT PRECIPITATION. 

  • PUG-MILL 
Mixer used to combine stone materials and bitumen in an asphalt-mixing plant. The mixing is effected by high-speed stirring with paddle blades at elevated temperatures. 

  • PYROPHORIC DEPOSIT 
A deposit, normally formed in an oxygen depleted environment, which can produce self-heating when its temperature or the surrounding oxygen concentration is increased.

  • RAFFINATE 
The part of a liquid, especially an oil, remaining after its more soluble components have been extracted by a solvent. 

  • RAKERMAN 
Person who shovels and rakes excess HMA, fill in voids and prepare joints for compaction by rolling to ensure a road surface free from defects. Sometimes referred to as LABORER. 

  • REFINERY 
A facility composed of a group of separation and chemical engineering unit processes used for refining crude oil into different oil products. 

  • RESINS (POLAR AROMATICS) 
Very adhesive fractions of relatively high molecular weight present in the maltenes. They are dispersing agents (referred to as peptisers) for the ASPHALTENES. This fraction is separated using solvent precipitation and adsorption chromatography. 

  • RHEOLOGY
Physical study of the deformation of materials linked to viscosity, elasticity, plasticity and flow.

  • ROAD OILS 
Term sometimes used for very soft VACUUM RESIDUE or harder BITUMENS that have FLUX OIL added, or CUTBACKS that have been produced using petroleum with a boiling point greater than 225°C (435°F) added to reduce the viscosity. ROAD OILS are generally used to produce ASPHALT paving mixes for use on very low volume roads in moderate to cold climates. 

  • ROCK ASPHALT 
Naturally-occurring form of ASPHALT, usually a combination of bitumen and limestone. 

  • ROLL ROOFING 
See OXIDISED BITUMEN MEMBRANE or POLYMER MODIFIED MEMBRANE. 

  • ROLLER OPERATORS (ROLLERS) 
Person driving machinery designed to compact the ASPHALT by rolling to finished specifications. 

  • ROLLING THIN FILM OVEN TEST (RTFOT) 
A common paving BITUMEN test which subjects a thin film of BITUMEN on the inside of a rolling glass jar to 163°C (325°F) for 85 minutes. See ASTM D2872, or EN 12607-1.

  • ROOFER'S FLUX (also called ROOFING FLUX) 
A low viscosity, high flashpoint, generally paraffinic residue of vacuum distillation of an appropriate petroleum crude oil used as a feedstock in the manufacture of OXIDISED BITUMEN used in roofing applications.

  • ROOFING BITUMEN/ASPHALT 
Bitumen used for manufacture of roofing systems or roofing products, such as; bitumen shingles, BURA, POLYMER MODIFIED membranes, saturated felt underlayment, and roofing adhesives.

  • ROOFING CEMENT 
A material made by adding filler and fibers to either a BITUMEN EMULSION or CUTBACK BITUMEN to make an adhesive used for maintenance and in applying flashings on a new roof. Depending on the performance characteristics sought for particular cements, the BITUMEN used in the formulation may be OXIDISED or STRAIGHT- RUN. 

  • ROOFING FELT 
A sheet material, impregnated with BITUMEN, generally supplied in rolls and used in roof construction. See BITUMEN ROOFING FELT. 

  • ROOFING KETTLE 
A vessel used to heat binders such as OXIDISED BITUMEN for use in the construction of BUILT UP ROOFING and some POLYMER MODIFIED BITUMEN roof systems. 

  • ROOFING SHINGLES 
A STEEP-SLOPE ROOFING product. BITUMEN roofing shingles are typically made by coating a glass mat with filled COATING BITUMEN and then surfacing with colored mineral granules. 

  • ROTARY DRUM DRYER 
A device in an asphalt-mixing plant used to dry and heat stone materials. 

  • SATURANT BITUMEN 
BITUMEN that is used to saturate organic felt to make roofing felt or to make organic based shingles. It can be STRAIGHT-RUN or OXIDISED BITUMEN. 

  • SATURATES 
Predominantly straight and branched-chain aliphatic hydrocarbons present in bitumens, together with alkyl naphthenes and some alkyl aromatics. This fraction forms 5-20% of the mass of bitumens.

  • SCREED 
Leveling device at the rear of a Paving machine. 

  • SCREEDMAN 
Person stationed at the rear of the paver, to control the distribution and grade of the ASPHALT mat as the paving machine moves forward. 

  • SELENICE 
A NATURAL ASPHALT from Albania. 

  • SELF ADHESIVE BITUMEN MEMBRANE 
Roofing or waterproofing polymer modified bitumen membrane applied at ambient temperature with the peel and stick method.

  • SEMI-BLOWN BITUMEN 
See AIR-RECTIFIED BITUMEN. 

  • SKIP-HOIST 
A device for transfer of ASPHALT MIXES from a PUG-MILL to storage. 

  • SLURRY SEAL
A mixture of bitumen emulsion, well-graded fine aggregate, mineral filler or other additives, and water. Slurry seals are used as surface treatments in road maintenance.

  • SOFT-APPLIED ROOFING 
BITUMEN roofing products that are applied by heating the BITUMEN membrane sufficiently with a torch or hot air welder to ensure good adhesion to the substrate. 

  • SOFTENING-POINT 
A specification test measuring the temperature, measured in ºC, at which material under standardized test conditions attains a specific consistency. (See ASTM D36 and/or EN1427). 

  • SOFT PAVING GRADE BITUMEN
Paving bitumens used in the manufacture of soft asphalt.

  • SOLVENT EXTRACTS 
Aromatic by-products (extracts) obtained from the refining of BASE OILS.

  • SOLVENT PRECIPITATION 
The process by which a hard product, PROPANE-PRECIPITATED ASPHALT, is separated from a vacuum residue by solvent precipitation (usually with propane). PROPANE-PRECIPITATED ASPHALT is truly a bitumen by the definitions applied in this monograph. In the USA, this process is called 'solvent deasphalting' and the product, SOLVENT-REFINED ASPHALT. 

  • SOLVENT-REFINED ASPHALT 
Term used in the USA for PROPANE-PRECIPITATED ASPHALT, also referred to PDA pitch or PDA asphalt.

  • STEAM-REFINED BITUMENS 
VACUUM RESIDUES that have been subjected to STEAM STRIPPING. 

  • STEAM STRIPPING 
Injection of steam into a residue which aids VACUUM DISTILLATION. 

  • STONE MASTIC ASPHALT, STONE MATRIX ASPHALT (SMA) 
Referred to as STONE MASTIC ASPHALT in Europe or STONE MATRIX ASPHALT in the United States. SMA is a gap-graded asphalt mixture with bitumen as a binder, composed of a coarse crushed aggregate skeleton bound with a mastic mortar (In Europe SMA is specified by EN 13108-5, in the USA it is specified regionally by State Highways Agencies). It is paved at temperatures typically employed for conventional ASPHALT mixtures. 

  • STEEP-SLOPE ROOFING 
Roofing products designed for a roof slope of more than 14 degrees. 

  • STRAIGHT-REDUCED BITUMENS 
VACUUM RESIDUES used as bitumens. STEAM STRIPPING may have been used in their production. STRAIGHT REDUCED BITUMENS refer to a bitumen produced to a specific target grade without blending with other bitumen grades to achieve the desired result. 

  • STRAIGHT-RUN BITUMENS 
Similar to STRAIGHT-REDUCED BITUMENS and STEAM-REFINED BITUMENS. 

  • SULPHUR EXTENDED ASPHALT 
A hot mixed asphalt in which part of the bituminous binder is replaced by elemental sulphur, typically at levels between 20-40%m of the original bitumen content. 

  • SURFACE DRESSING 
Process used to seal road surfaces; a thin film of bitumen, CUTBACK BITUMEN or BITUMEN EMULSIONS is spread, covered with a single or double layer of chippings, and then rolled. 

  • SURFACE TREATMENT 
May include SURFACE DRESSING and other techniques, such as spraying with minor amounts of BITUMEN EMULSION to bind surfaces together. 

  • TEAR OFF 
To remove an existing roof system for replacement. 

  • TERMINAL 
A facility outside a refinery where bitumen is held for intermediate storage prior to delivery to (or collection by) customers. 

  • THERMALLY CRACKED BITUMENS 
Also known as Residues (petroleum), thermal cracked, vacuum: Bitumens produced by thermal cracking. 

  • TOPPING PLANT 
A 'stand alone' distillation plant. Topping plants are usually found in terminals and used to remove distillate materials added to bitumens for transportation purposes. 

  • TORCHING 
Application of a roofing membrane with a propane gas flame, used for melting the side of the roofing membrane, without addition of hot bonding bitumen.This is also called HOT WELDING ROOFING.
 
  • TRINIDAD LAKE ASPHALT 
A NATURAL ASPHALT obtained from the La Brea region of Trinidad. 

  • UNDERLAYMENT 
Factory made flexible sheets of bitumen (OXIDISED or MODIFIED) which are used as underlay to coverings of sloping roofs (e.g. tiles, slates, shingles). 

  • VACUUM DISTILLATION 
Distillation of ATMOSPHERIC RESIDUE under vacuum. 

  • VACUUM RESIDUE 
Residue obtained by VACUUM DISTILLATION. 

  • VISBREAKING 
A relatively mild thermal cracking operation mainly used to reduce the viscosity and pour point of vacuum residues for subsequent use in heavy fuel oils. The process converts a proportion of the residue feedstock to distillate product, e.g. Gas oil. 

  • VISCOSITY 
Resistance to flow of a substance when a shearing stress is imposed on the substance. For BITUMEN products, test methods include vacuum-capillary, cone and plate, orifice-type and rotational viscometers. Measurements of viscosity at varying temperatures are used by technologists in all industry segments that utilize BITUMEN materials. 

  • VISCOSITY-GRADED BITUMEN 
BITUMEN which is graded and specified by the viscosity at a standard temperature, which is typically 60 °C (140°F). ASTM D2171 and EN 12596 are the most commonly used viscosity tests. 

  • WARM MIX ASPHALT 
Asphalt mixtures produced at lower temperatures as compared to those typically associated with rolled asphalt pavement. Warm-mix asphalts are produced and placed at temperatures typically 10 - 40 ºC (50 - 100 ºF) lower than conventional rolled asphalt. 

  • WEATHERING TEST 
Various accelerated durability tests have been developed for OXIDISED BITUMENS used in roofing applications. The most prevalent is the Xenon Arc Accelerated Weathering test, where thin OXIDISED BITUMEN films are applied to aluminum panels and then subjected to light, heat, and water sprays in several combinations of time and temperature. See ASTM D4798, ASTM D1669, and ASTM D1670. 

  • WHITE SPIRIT 
A distillate petroleum product free of rancid or objectionable odors, boiling-range 150-200 °C (300-390 °F); sometimes described as 'Stoddard solvent'.



Sources:
  1. The Bitumen Industry- A Global Perspective, IS-230, A joint publication of Asphalt Institute and Eurobitume, 2011.
  2. http://www.bitumenuk.com


For more specific glossary of roofing terms click here


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